An air sampler called FM4 for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was developed for analyzing PFAS in air. PFAS analysis using FM4 is a groundbreaking approach, which enabled the simultaneous collection of particulate and gaseous PFAS in air.
In conventional collection methods based on filtration, accurate measurement is often difficult because gaseous PFAS may be adsorbed on particles collected on the filter surface. A gaseous PFAS may change to its non-volatile form during sampling.
To solve these limitations, the FM4 was designed with an impactor that minimizes the contact between particles and gas and three types of adsorbents, which enable simultaneous collection of ionic and neutral/volatile PFAS.
The collected PFAS is eluted with organic solvents and quantified by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Conventional activated carbons typically contain complicated pores. They have been used as adsorbents for PFAS; however, the complete elution of adsorbed PFAS is difficult to achieve. Therefore, we developed a new functional activated carbon adsorbent (GAIAC), which was used as the gas-type adsorbent. GAIAC is an innovative sorbent that is composed of synthetic resin fiber with optimized pore and surface activity, which enable the collection and elution of PFAS.
- Comprehensive Sampling
Despite its compact size, the FM4 Air Sampler can simultaneously collect both particulate and gaseous substances. It allows the amount of each substance collected to be separately determined, making it possible to comprehensively evaluate the sampled air.
- Capable of Collecting Gaseous PFAS such as FTOHs
Up to now, it has been difficult to collect gaseous PFAS in the air. However, thanks to the FM4 Air Sampler’s newly developed activated-carbon desorption material, this is no longer a problem.
- Excellent Recovery Rate
We have tested the FM4 Air Sampler with a wide range of PFAS and have achieved excellent recovery rates for all of them.
- Portable and Easy to Deploy
Because the FM4 Air Sampler is lightweight and compact, it is easy to carry and, with its very small installation footprint, easy to deploy.
Movie PFAS Air Sampler: Part Numbers
1050-13015, FM4 Air Sampler for PFAS does not include a sampling pump.
1050-13020, Activated Carbon Fiber Disk (GAIAC FF047) 20 pcs. 1 pcs per sampling needed
1050-13021, Polyurethane Foam PUF4750 10 pcs. 1 pcs per sampling needed
1050-13022, Quartz Fiber Filter QFF31 100 pcs. 3 pcs per sampling needed
1050-13023, Quartz Fiber Filter QFF47 100 pcs. 1 pcs per sampling needed
. This product was developed in a joint effort by National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and FUTAMURA CHEMICAL CO.,LTD.
. GAIAC is a trademark of FUTAMURA CHEMICAL CO.,LTD. References
Simultaneous Analysis of neutral and ionizable per- and poly fluoroalkyl substances in air.
A new method is preliminarily validated for the simultaneous analysis of ionic and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in both particulate and
gaseous phases in air using a nanosampler-20 air sampler (NS20) composed of quartz fiber filters (QFFs), polyurethane foam (PUF) and artificial activated charcoal
(GAIACTM). Perfluoroalkane sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs) mainly remained in PUF, whereas the other neutral analytes were mainly
found in GAIAC. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for FOSEs, fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs), ranging fron 70%-120%, moderate
recoveries were achieved for perfluorinated iodine alkanes (FIAs) and diiodofluoroalkanes (FDIAs), ranging from 50%-70%, while poor recoveries were found for
perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FOSAs). Breakthrough experiments revealed that almost all the target analytes were well trapped in GAIAC, including the very
volatile 4:2 FTOH. Applying to real sampling, our results showed that 6:2 and 8:2 FTOH were the most abundant species, with levels detected at 190 pg/m³ and
160 pg/m³. To the best of our knowledge, FDIAs were detected in ambient air for the first time at an average level of 8.3 pg/m³. Overall,
the profiles observed from the real air samples reflected current industrial transition from longer chain to shorter chain in PFAS production.
Our results revealed that the current method is promising for a more comprehensive understanding on the fates of PFASs in air.
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in surface water, gas, and particle in open ocean and coastal environment.
A simultaneous sampling of atmospheric and seawater samples was performed in the Taiwan Western Strait, western Arctic Ocean, and the Antarctic Ocean. Analysis of both particle and gas phase PFAS in oceanic air was conducted using cascade impactor particle fractionator, cryogenic air sampler and activated charcoal fiber sorbent for the first time with application in the Taiwan Western Strait. Mean concentration of S12PFAS in surface seawater and atmospheric samples were 1178 pg/L and 24 pg/m3 in the Taiwan Western Strait, 430 pg/L and 6 pg/m3 in the western Arctic Ocean, and 456 pg/L and 3 pg/m3 in the Antarctic Ocean. In oceanic air from the Taiwan Western Strait, fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and the ionic PFAS [perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA)] were found in 76% and 7% respectively. Regional comparison of air/water exchange (KAW) and gas-particle (Kp) partition coefficients of PFAS in the oceanic environment indicated potential partitioning of ionic PFAS between surface seawater and oceanic air. These findings highlight the advancement in atmospheric PFAS measurements through combined novel technologies, namely size-fractionated particle sampling with cryogenic air trapping and/or activated charcoal sorption. Correlation between Kp and carbon chain length of PFAS was observed using both hyphenated techniques.
Perfluorinated compounds in atmosphere of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.
This study investigated perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the atmosphere of Hyogo prefecture, Japan.
Target compounds were perfluorinated carboxylic acids(PFCAs, C4-C14), perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates
(PFASs, C4, C6, C8, C10), and 12 kinds of fluorotelomer compounds(FTs) such as fluorotelomer alcohols
(FTOHs), fluorotelomer acrylates(FTAcrylates), fluorotemer methacrylate (FTMethacrylate), fluorotelomer
iodides (FTIs), and fluorotelomer olefins (FTOlefins). Air samples were collected by using a high volume air
sampler at 3 sampling sites in Hyogo prefecture in August (summer) and December (winter) of 2009. Quartz
micro fiber filters (QMF), poly-urethane foams (PUF), and activated carbon felts (ACF) were used for collection
media. Target compounds were analyzed by using GC/MS and UPLC/MS/MS.
As a result, PFCAs (C4-14), PFOS, 6:2FTOH, 8:2FTOH, 6:2FTAcrylate, 8:2FTAcrylate, 8:2FTI, and
10:2FTOlefin were detected that differed from site to site and also in each season. In addition, some PFCAs
were detected in both particle phase and gas phase in summer, whereas the compounds were detected in only
particle phase in winter.
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Air Particles of Asia: Levels, Seasonality, and Size-dependent Distribution.
Information regarding the size-dependent distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is very limited.
In this study, 248 size-specific PM samples were collected from 9 Asian cities using a portable 4-stage cascade impactor for the analysis of PFAS.
Of the 34 investigated PFAS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were the major compounds. In particular, the emerging PFAS,
hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid, was quantified in the PM for the first time, with concentrations ranging from <0.086 to 21.5 pg/m3. Spatially, PFOA and PFOS were the predominant compounds in China, while precursors, emerging PFAS, and short-chain PFAS dominated in India, Japan, and South Korea, respectively. Seasonal variations of PFAS may be controlled by regional climate, local or seasonal emission sources, and long-range transport of air masses. Size-dependent distribution was investigated, showing that the majority of PFAS predominantly affiliated in fine particles, while PFOS and its alternatives tended to attach on coarser particles. Moreover, PFOS distributed on specific sizes exhibited seasonal and regional dependency, while no such patterns were observed for PFOA. These findings will provide useful information on the geographical and size-dependent distribution of PFAS in the atmospheric PM.
Non-target discovery of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in atmospheric particulate matter and gaseous phase using cryogenic air sampler.
Novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become a key issue in global environmental studies. Although several novel PFASs have been discovered in atmospheric particulate matter through nontarget analysis, information on the environmental occurrence of novel PFASs in atmospheric gaseous phases and conventional sampling techniques is somewhat deficient. Therefore, this Article describes a new type of air sampler, the cryogenic air sampler (CAS), which was used to collect all atmospheric components simultaneously. Nontarget analysis then was performed through PFASs homologue analysis. A total of 117 PFAS homologues (38 classes) were discovered, 48 of which (13 classes) were identified with confidence Level 4 or above. Eleven chlorinated perfluoropolyether alcohols (3 classes) and four chlorinated perfluoropolyether carboxylic acids (2 classes) have been reported for the first time in this Article. This Article is also the first report of 12 hydrosubstituted perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (H-PFCAs) in the atmosphere. H-PFCAs and chlorinated perfluoropolyether carboxylic acids were mainly distributed in the particular phase. These results are evidence that novel chlorinated polyether PFASs should be the focus of future study.
A Multiphase Sampling and Analytical Approach for Investigating Airborne PFAS Transmission .
The authors evaluated a sampling and analytical system to measure differing modes of atmospheric per- and polyfluorinated
substances (PFAS) transmission. The sampling was conducted with the FM4 sampling module, which features particulate
collection followed by polyurethane foam sorption followed by activated carbon disc adsorption, a configuration designed
to capture PFAS-laden particulate matter (one-micron to ten-microns), as well as aerosol, volatile, and ionic PFAS species in a
single sampling event. Individual sampling media fractions were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with
tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass
spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 33 ionic and 20 neutral PFAS species. A multi-day field sampling event conducted in an outdoor
urban environment demonstrated that the system was able to capture and differentiate a number of airborne PFAS species.
The study showed that simultaneous, multi-phase sample collection coupled with GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis can be
a useful approach to further elucidate the mode and manner of atmospheric PFAS transmission.